Cost of chiropractic versus medical management of adults with spine-related musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review - Chiropractic & Manual Therapies

March 07, 2024

We elected a priori not to pursue meta-analysis due to heterogeneity of the included studies. An article was rated as “high quality, low risk of bias,” “acceptable quality, moderate risk of bias,” “low quality, high risk of bias,” or “unacceptable” quality. For cohort studies, it was difficult to identify a single appropriate checklist because most seemed designed to be more appropriate to assess prospective cohort studies, and the most recent relevant studies related to our topic are retrospective cohort studies using large datasets. We therefore developed a checklist for prospective cohort studies after reviewing other existing checklists [20]. For retrospective or cross-sectional cohort studies, we developed a checklist combining some features of the SIGN checklist for cohort studies [20] and the NIH tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies [21].

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