These were:Patient history of a good response to previous SMT (item 1). An audible release following SMT (item 18). For these items (Items 2, 3, 5, 7, 17), a literature search was conducted to see if previous research had produced any reliable and/or valid measures. Replication of patient’s symptoms (Item 16). This section also sought a rating on the question, “Did the presence of spinal springing and/or end range loading closely reproduce the patient’s symptoms” (No, Yes, Unsure).