Conceivably, this heterogeneity is one reason for the large variability in reported force-time characteristics of SM. As such, this study provides a comprehensive summary of the force-time characteristics of SM delivered to both humans and inanimate objects. Secondly, definitions of how each reported force-time characteristic was defined and/or calculated need to be clearly reported. mean and standard deviation) for all reported force-time characteristics, allowing for a more illustrative description of the delivered SM. Considering that this limitation applies to over three-quarters of the data reported here, the results should be interpreted with caution.