New research from Boston Medical Center identifies elevated mortality risk for women with back pain when compared to women without back pain. Back pain was not associated with mortality among men indicating long-term consequences of back pain may differ by sex. The overall findings suggest that mild back pain (pain that does not keep a person from exercising or doing daily activities) is unlikely to impact the length of one's life, but risk of mortality was increased among adults with more severe back pain. The highest risk of mortality associated with back pain was observed in studies that only included women, and those that identified adults with more severe back pain. Future studies should focus on the complex relationship between back pain, back pain treatment, mental health, disability, and mortality.